The principal focus of my research is the social and cultural history of the modern Middle East. In my first book, I examined the connections between education and the rise of the modern state in nineteenth-century Egypt. To this end, my work chronicled moments of contestation as to both the methods and the purposes of education — contestation between Anglican and Presbyterian missionaries, Ottoman and Egyptian officials, Coptic priests and Muslim reformers.

I am currently completing a second book, tentatively entitled A History of the Coptic Community in Modern Egypt. This book urges a reconceptualization of the ways in which modern Coptic history is written – a shift away from the elitist focus in the existing historiography on lay ‘reformers’ and Church leaders. In particular, the book traces how, in recent decades, the Coptic Church has become more insular and dependent upon the Egyptian state than ever before, and inadvertently promoted the very sectarianism that Coptic leaders claim to disdain.

In a different vein, given a longstanding interest in the popular culture of the Nasser era, I am undertaking both teaching and research in the history of Egyptian cinema — specifically, the film culture of the 1950s and 1960s. I am particularly interested in exploring the images of village poverty, colonial violence, family discord, and the subjugation of women that pervade such films. My research considers the links between these images and such state priorities as eradicating ‘backwardness’ and ‘superstition,’ pacifying the ‘social body,’ and consolidating ‘modern’ forms of subjectivity — among them, the companionate spouse, the productive worker, and the patriotic citizen.


[Google Scholar page, page, and SFU Summit Repository page]

Abstract: The sparse scholarship on the political role of Coptic Christians in modern Egypt almost always takes the Coptic Orthodox Church as a point of departure, assuming that the head of the church, the Coptic patriarch, is not only the spiritual leader of the community but its political leader as well. This article argues that the disproportionate attention afforded to the Coptic Orthodox Church in this scholarship has obscured intra-communal dynamics of the Copts that are essential to an understanding of their political role. Through an analysis of historical struggles between the Coptic clergy and the Coptic laity for influence in Egyptian politics, as well as a particular focus on how these struggles have played out in the arena of personal status law, the article demonstrates that Egyptian politics and Coptic communal dynamics are deeply intertwined, to a degree often disregarded both by Copts and by Egypt analysts.

  • From Mission to Modernity: Evangelicals, Reformers, and Education in Nineteenth-Century Egypt (London: I.B. Tauris, 2011).

Abstract: Through a close analysis of the links between nineteenth-century Protestant missionary thought and the British and Foreign School Society (BFSS) this article suggests that to distinguish Enlightenment educational and social reform from evangelism is mistaken. Emblematic of the social reform projects which emerged in England as responses to the challenges of the French Revolution and rapid urbanisation, the BFSS was the outgrowth of Joseph Lancaster’s efforts at spreading the method of education he pioneered, the monitorial system, throughout the British Isles and, ultimately, the world. Despite the strong association between the BFSS and various utilitarian thinkers, evangelicals of late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth-century England came to view the Society and the monitorial system as means by which to integrate all the peoples of the world into the Lord’s dominion. Becoming part of that dominion entailed subjecting oneself to constant moral scrutiny, and monitorial schools were regarded as a means by which to ensure such self-examination. In short, missionaries seized upon monitorial schools because their aims were parallel to those of educational reformers in the metropole. Where home reformers aimed at the normalisation of the body of English political subjects, the development of the English social body, missionary reformers aimed at the normalisation of the body of God’s children.

Abstract: Scholars of Egyptian history and politics face a dearth of analytical studies of the modern Coptic Church and community. This state of affairs is due to various factors of a methodological, theoretical, and practical nature. In practical terms, both the Egyptian state and the Coptic Orthodox Church have discouraged exploration of Coptic identity given the political taboo of sectarianism. In theoretical terms, Edward Said’s Orientalism led to concerns among scholars about overemphasizing faith in their analyses of Middle Eastern history and politics. In methodological terms, modern Coptic historiography remains hobbled by an ‘enlightenment paradigm’ which discounts the political potential and action of subaltern and clerical forces within the community. This article urges a concern with the ways in which these subaltern and clerical forces shaped the Coptic ‘discursive tradition’ in the course of the twentieth century, as a means by which to restore Copts to modern Egyptian historiography, not as victims or symbols, but as actors in their own right.

Abstract: The English Church Missionary Society (CMS) dispatched a contingent of missionaries to Egypt in 1825. This article analyses the methods and impact of that contingent. The schools that the CMS missionaries introduced are cast not as vehicles of enlightenment — as is frequently the case in mission historiography — but as technologies of power. Specifically, the article recounts how the head of the mission, the Reverend John Lieder, deployed Lancaster schools among the Coptic Christians of Cairo to effect not merely a spiritual, but further, a cultural conversion of this Orthodox community. Lieder, his predecessors, and his contemporaries in the Mediterranean field sought to instil in the Copts the “evangelical ethos” of industry, discipline, and order. The article links this CMS project of cultural conversion to the process of state-building in Egypt. Indeed, Lieder was a pioneer purveyor of technologies of power that would prove indispensable to late-nineteenth-century elites in their efforts to produce, in the subaltern strata of Egyptian society, industrious and disciplined political subjects resigned to their lowly positions in the Egyptian social order.

Abstract: Whereas the political claims of Egyptian Islamists have attracted much attention in Western media and scholarly circles, only rarely have such circles acknowledged the role played by ethno-religious consciousness among Coptic Christians in Egyptian political life. This article analyzes the development of this consciousness through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, as well as the socio-economic roots of ‘Coptist’ political action. Accorded particular attention is the emergence of an explicitly sectarian political discourse among groups of middle-class Copts in the 1970s, and the related spread of ethnic consciousness through the Coptic community at large since that time.

Screen Shot 2015-01-29 at 5.39.33 AM


  • “Writing the History of a Revolution in Progress: The Challenges of Interpreting the Arab Spring as an Insider-Outsider,” Coptic Canadian History Project third annual conference, Archives of Ontario, Toronto, ON, May 4, 2019.
  • “Egypt’s Church-State Partnership and the End of Equal Citizenship for Coptic Christians,” Tower Center, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX, April 11, 2019.
  • “A Missionary Pope in a Secular Age? Reappraising the Role of Kirollos VI in Modern Egyptian History,” Middle East Studies Association 52nd Annual Meeting, San Antonio, TX, November 17, 2018.
  • “From Citizenship to Protection in Egyptian Public Life: The Role of the Coptic Orthodox Church in Modern Sectarianism,” Middle East Studies Association 51st Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, November 20, 2017.
  • “Combating Sectarian Violence in Egypt: Is There a Role for the Egyptian Diaspora?” keynote address for Coptic Canadian History Project conference, York University, Toronto, ON, April 6, 2017.
  • “Life or Death: Anxiety About the Urban in 1950s Egyptian Cinema,” American University in Cairo, Egypt, May 4, 2015.
  • “Nation and Taboo: Writing the Copt into Modern Egyptian History,” University of Houston, TX, January 26, 2015.
  • “Has Citizenship Got a Future in Post-Revolutionary Egypt?” Egyptian Revolution Working Group, Center for Contemporary Arab Studies, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, April 4, 2013.
  • “The Multiple Meanings of ‘Aqbat al-Mahgar’: Diaspora Copts as Signifier in Egyptian Politics,” First Annual Symposium in Arab Canadian Studies, Arab Canadian Studies Research Group, University of Ottawa, Canada, February 15-16, 2013.
  • “Copts and the Millet Partnership: The Intra-Communal Dynamics Behind Egyptian Sectarianism,” International Symposium on ‘Politics of Religious Freedom: Contested Norms and Local Practices in the Middle East and North Africa,’ Henry Luce Foundation Initiative on Religion and International Affairs, Cairo, Egypt, January 9-10, 2013.
  • “From 1911 to 2011: Sectarian Conflicts in Comparative Perspective,” Fifth Annual Coptic Studies Symposium, University of Toronto, Canada, March 24, 2012.
  • “Death and the Modern: Projections of the City in 1950s Egypt,” Film Series on ‘Terror, Occupation, Partition: Making Meaning of Post/Colonial Violences,’ Liu Institute for Global Issues, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, March 21-23, 2012.
  • “Salafis, Sabotage, and Sectarianism: Religion in Egypt’s Transition to Democracy,” Invited Lecture, Centre for Studies in Religion and Society, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, November 25, 2011.
  • “Revolution in Egypt: Sights, Sounds, Significance,” Invited Lecture, Portland State University, Portland, OR, May 23, 2011.
  • “Egyptian History Without ‘Egypt’? Privileging Pluralism in a Post-Revolution Pedagogy,” International Conference on ‘Teaching the Middle East After the Tunisian and Egyptian Revolutions,’ George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, May 13-14, 2011.
  • “Salafis, Sabotage, and Sectarianism: Thoughts on Coptic Protest in Revolutionary Egypt,” International Workshop on ‘After Tahrir: Egypt’s Ongoing Social Transformation,’ Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, April 22, 2011.
  • “Bringing the Copts Back In: Why the Copts Are Essential to Understanding Modern Egyptian History,” International Conference on ‘The Future of Coptic Studies: Theories, Methods, Topics,’ Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, September 17-19, 2010.


  1. Abdelfattah, Heba Saad Arafa. “Dreams of Alternative Modernities on the Nile.” PhD diss., Georgetown University, 2016.
  2. Abdou, Ehaab D. “‘Confused by multiple deities, ancient Egyptians embraced monotheism’: analysing historical thinking and inclusion in Egyptian history textbooks.” Journal of Curriculum Studies 48, no. 2 (2016): 226-251, doi:
  3. Abdou, Ehaab D. “Copts in Egyptian history textbooks: towards an integrated framework for analyzing minority representations.” Journal of Curriculum Studies 50, no. 4 (2018): 476-507,
  4. Abou-El-Fadl, Reem. “Early Pan- Arabism in Egypt’s July Revolution: The Free Officers’ Political Formation and Policy-Making, 1946-54.” Nations & Nationalism 21, no. (2015): 289–308,
  5. Abou-El-Fadl, Reem. Foreign Policy as Nation Making: Turkey and Egypt in the Cold War. Cambridge University Press, 2018,
  6. Adar, S. “Regimes of Political Belonging: Turkey and Egypt in Comparative Perspective.” In Citizenship, Belonging, and Nation-States in the Twenty-First Century. Palgrave Macmillan, 2016,
  7. Adly, Mereet Hany. “Internal Reformation Within the Contemporary Coptic Imagined Community: The Sunday School Movement and Mechanisms of Minority Survival.” Journal of Religious & Theological Information 18, no. 2-3 (2019): 75-91,
  8. Al-Musawi, Muhsin J. The Medieval Islamic Republic of Letters: Arabic Knowledge Construction. University of Notre Dame Pess, 2015,
  9. Aldrich, Richard. “The British and Foreign School Society, Past and Present.” History of Education Researcher 91 (2013): 5-12.
  10. Allam, Nermin. Women and the Egyptian Revolution: Engagement and Activism during the 2011 Arab Uprisings. Cambridge University Press, 2017,
  11. Arafat, Alaa Al-Din. Egypt in Crisis: The Fall of Islamism and Prospects of Democratization. Springer International Publishing AG, 2017.
  12. Arifianto, Alexander R. “Religious Freedom, Authoritarianism, and Inter-Religious Conflict: A Theoretical Framework.” APSA 2013 Annual Meeting Paper,
  13. Armanios, Febe. “Approaches to Coptic history after 641.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 42, no. 3 (2010): 483-485, doi:
  14. Armanios, Febe. Coptic Christianity in Ottoman Egypt. Oxford University Press, 2011,
  15. Armbrust, Walter. “The formation of national culture in Egypt in the interwar period: Cultural trajectories.” History Compass 7, no. 1 (2009): 155-180, doi:
  16. Armbrust, Walter. “A history of new media in the Arab Middle East.” Journal for cultural research 16, no. 2-3 (2012): 155-174, doi:
  17. Asad, Talal. “Fear and the ruptured state: Reflections on Egypt after Mubarak.” Social Research: An International Quarterly 79, no. 2 (2012): 271-298,
  18. Atkins, Gareth. “William Jowett’s Christian Researches: British Protestants and Religious Plurality in the Mediterranean, Syria and the Holy Land, 1815–30.” Studies in Church History 51 (2015): 216-231, doi:
  19. Auji, Hala. “Between Script and Print: Exploring Publications of the American Syria Mission and the Nascent Press in the Arab World, 1834–1860.” PhD diss., State University of New York at Binghamton, 2013.
  20. Ayad, Mariam, ed. Studies in Coptic Culture: Transmission and Interaction. AUC Press, 2016.
  21. Ayalon, Ami. The Arabic Print Revolution. Cambridge University Press, 2016,
  22. Baeza, Andrés. “Circulación de biblias protestantes y tolerancia religiosa en la América del Sur post-independiente: La visión de Luke Matthews, 1826-1829.” Economía y Política 3, no. 2 (2016): 5-35.
  23. Baeza, Andrés. “One Local Dimension of a Global Project: The Introduction of the Monitorial System of Education in Post‐Independent Chile, 1821–1833.” Bulletin of Latin American Research 36, no. 3 (2017): 340-353,
  24. Bal, Mustafa. “Anatomy of a Revolution: the 2011 Egyptian Uprising.” PhD diss., Columbia University, 2014,
  25. Barak, On. “On innocence: Blasphemy, pan-Islam and the uneven mediation of utopia.” In Media and Utopia, pp. 319-353. Routledge, 2017,
  26. Barkey, Karen, and George Gavrilis. “The Ottoman millet system: Non-territorial autonomy and its contemporary legacy.” Ethnopolitics 15, no. 1 (2016): 24-42, doi:
  27. Baron, Beth. The Orphan Scandal: Christian Missionaries and the Rise of the Muslim Brotherhood. Stanford University Press, 2014,
  28. Baron, Beth. “Perilous Beginnings: Infant Mortality, Public Health and the State in Egypt.” In Gendering Global Humanitarianism in the Twentieth Century, pp. 195-219. Palgrave Macmillan, 2020. doi:
  29. Barsoum, Kirollos A. “‘Traditional’ charity versus ‘modern’ development: philanthropy and communal boundaries in the Coptic Orthodox Church.” Master’s thesis, Indiana University, 2016,
  30. Becker, Adam H. Revival and awakening: American evangelical missionaries in Iran and the origins of Assyrian nationalism. University of Chicago Press, 2015,
  31. Belge, Ceren, and Ekrem Karakoç. “Minorities in the Middle East: Ethnicity, religion, and support for authoritarianism.” Political Research Quarterly 68, no. 2 (2015): 280-292,
  32. Bland, Weston. “Copts, the State and the 1949–1950 al-Majlis al-Millī Electoral Crisis: Articulating Community in a Time of Anxiety.” Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations (2019): 1-20,
  33. Bland, Weston. “Wild Libya: narratives of violence on Egypt’s Western border.” The Journal of North African Studies (2020): 1-33.
  34. Blaydes, Lisa, and Rachel M. Gillum. “Religiosity-of-interviewer effects: Assessing the impact of veiled enumerators on survey response in Egypt.” Politics and Religion 6, no. 3 (2013): 459-482, doi:
  35. Booth, Marilyn, ed. The Long 1890s in Egypt: Colonial Quiescence, Subterranean Resistance. Edinburgh University Press, 2014,
  36. Botros, Ghada. “Religious identity as an historical narrative: Coptic Orthodox immigrant churches and the representation of history.” Journal of Historical Sociology 19, no. 2 (2006): 174-201, doi:
  37. Boulos, Samir. “Cultural entanglements and missionary spaces: European evangelicals in Egypt (1900-1956).” PhD diss., University of Zurich, 2015.
  38. Boulos, Samir. European Evangelicals in Egypt (1900-1956): Cultural Entanglements and Missionary Spaces. Brill, 2016,
  39. Boum, Aomar, and Daadaoui, Mohamed. Historical Dictionary of the Arab Uprisings. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2020.
  40. Bouvier, Craig Lawrence. “Reading Dewey and Foucault together towards a philosophy of discipline as production in schools.” PhD diss., University of Alabama, 2017,
  41. Brand, Laurie A. Official Stories: Politics and National Narratives in Egypt and Algeria. Stanford University Press, 2014.
  42. Brinkerhoff, Jennifer M. Institutional reform and diaspora entrepreneurs: The in-between advantage. Oxford University Press, 2016,
  43. Brooke, Steven, and Neil Ketchley. “Social and Institutional Origins of Political Islam.” American Political Science Review 112, no. 2 (2018): 376-394,
  44. Brooks Hedstrom, Darlene L. The Monastic Landscape of Late Antique Egypt: An Archaeological Reconstruction. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2017.
  45. Brownlee, Jason. “Social Relationships and the Prevention of Anti-Christian Violence in Egypt.” The Middle East Journal 72, no. 1 (2018): 66-88,
  46. Caruso, Marcelo. “World systems, world society, world polity: theoretical insights for a global history of education.” History of Education 37, no. 6 (2008): 825-840, doi:
  47. Caruso, Marcelo, and Eugenia Roldán Vera. “Pluralizing Meanings: The Monitorial System of Education in Latin America in the Early Nineteenth Century,” Paedagogica Historica 41:6 (2005), 645-654, doi: 10.1080/00309230500336707
  48. Chaillot, Christine. “The life and situation of the Coptic Orthodox church today.” Studies in World Christianity 15, no. 3 (2009): 199-216, doi:
  49. Challis, Debbie. The archaeology of race: the eugenic ideas of Francis Galton and Flinders Petrie. A&C Black, 2013,
  50. Christiansen, Lars Gunnar. “Custodians of social peace or contenders in a popularity contest? The Egyptian Armed Forces and Egypt’s Coptic Christians.” CMI Working Paper (2015).
  51. Coakley, John, ed. Non-territorial Autonomy in Divided Societies: Comparative Perspectives. Routledge, 2018,
  52. Coen, Alise E. “Rethinking Anti-Americanism: Egyptian Perceptions of the United States.” PhD diss., University of Delaware, 2009.
  53. Cohen, Martine. “Diaspora Juive: entre nostalgie de Sion et attrait d’autres terres promises.” Quaderni di diritto e politica ecclesiastica 23, no. 1 (2020): 49-58.
  54. Counihan, Chris. “Endogenous education in India and the implications of universal peer teaching in the 19th century.” In Handbook of International Development and Education. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015,
  55. Cricco, Massimiliano, Houssi, Leila El, and Melcangi, Alessia, eds. North African Societies after the Arab Spring : Between Democracy and Islamic Awakening. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2016.
  56. Culang, Jeffrey. “Liberal Translations: Secular Concepts, Law, and Religion in Colonial Egypt.” PhD diss., City University of New York, 2017,
  57. Culang, Jeffrey. ““The Shari‘a must go”: Seduction, Moral Injury, and Religious Freedom in Egypt’s Liberal Age.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 60, no. 2 (2018): 446-475,
  58. Davis, R.A., Conroy, J.C. and Clague, J. “Schools as Factories: The Limits of a Metaphor.” Journal of Philosophy of Education 54 (2020): 1471-1488,
  59. Delhaye, Grégoire. “Les racines du dynamisme de la diaspora copte.” EchoGéo (2008), doi:
  60. Delhaye, Gregoire. “Contemporary Muslim-Christian Relations in Egypt: Local Dynamics and Foreign Influences.” In Religious Minorities in the Middle East, pp. 71-96. Brill, 2012.
  61. Dimock, Elizabeth. “Women, Missions and Modernity: From Anti-Slavery to Missionary Zeal, 1780s to 1840s.” Itinerario 34, no. 3 (2010): 53-66,
  62. Dinno, Khalid S. “The Syrian Orthodox Christians in the Late Ottoman and Post-Ottoman Periods: Crisis and Revival.” PhD diss., University of Toronto, 2015.
  63. Dowell, Anna. “Landscapes of Belonging: Protestant Activism in Revolutionary Egypt.” International Journal of Sociology 45, no. 3 (2015): 190-205,
  64. du Roy, Gaétan. “Le prêtre des chiffonniers.” PhD diss., Université catholique de Louvain, 2014.
  65. Edwards, Anthony. “Revisiting a Nahḍa origin story: Majmaʿ al-Tahdhīb and the Protestant community in 1840s Beirut.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 82, no. 3 (2019): 427-451,
  66. El Achi, Soha C. “Children and Slave Emancipation in French Algeria and Tunisia (1846-1892).” PhD diss., Georgetown University, 2017.
  67. Elsadda, Hoda. “A ‘phantom freedom in a phantom modernity’? Protestant missionaries, domestic ideology and narratives of modernity in an Arab context.” Rethinking History 15, no. 2 (2011): 209-228, doi:
  68. Elsässer, Sebastian. “Muslims and Christians in Egyptian State Formation: A New Beginning in 2011?” In State Formation and Identity in the Middle East and North Africa, pp. 139-157. Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2013,
  69. Elsässer, Sebastian. The Coptic Question in the Mubarak Era. Oxford University Press, 2014,
  70. Elshakry, Marwa. “The gospel of science and American evangelism in late Ottoman Beirut.” Past and present 196, no. 1 (2007): 173-214, doi:
  71. Farha, Mark, and Salma Mousa. “Secular autocracy vs. sectarian democracy? Weighing reasons for christian support for regime transition in Syria and Egypt.” Mediterranean Politics 20, no. 2 (2015): 178-197,
  72. Farouk, Mahmoud, Amy Hawthorne, and Ahmed Rizk. Prayers Unanswered: Assessing the Impact of Egypt’s 2016 Church Construction Law. Project on Middle East Democracy, 2018,
  73. Farquhar, Michael. “Expanding the Wahhabi mission: Saudi Arabia, the Islamic University of Medina and the transnational religious economy.” PhD diss., The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), 2013,
  74. Farquhar, Michael. Circuits of faith: Migration, education, and the Wahhabi mission. Stanford University Press, 2016,
  75. Foda, Omar D. “Grand plans in glass bottles: the economic, social, and technological history of beer in Egypt 1880-1970.” PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, 2015,
  76. Foda, Omar D. Egypt’s Beer: Stella, Identity, and the Modern State. University of Texas Press, 2019,
  77. Fonder, Nathan Lambert. “Pleasure, Leisure, Or Vice? Public Morality in Imperial Cairo, 1882–1949.” PhD diss., Harvard University, 2013,
  78. Fortenberry, Diane. Souvenirs and New Ideas. Oxbow Books, 2013,
  79. Friesen, Isaac. “On Samir Murqus, the Narrative of Crisis and the Triumph of Tahrir.” In Arab Spring, pp. 157-171. Palgrave Macmillan, 2020,
  80. Furniss, Philip Jamie. “Metaphors of Waste: Several Ways of Seeing ‘Development’ and Cairo’s Garbage Collectors.” PhD diss., Oxford University, 2012.
  81. Furniss, Jamie, “Religion, humanitarianism and development: the secular materialist ‘mission’ of sœur Emmanuelle with Cairo’s garbage collectors,” A contrario, 2012/2 (n° 18), pp. 97-123,
  82. Furniss, J., and D. Meier. “Le laïc et le religieux dans l’action humanitaire, une introduction.” A contrario, 18, no. 2 (2012): 7-36.
  83. Gabra, Gawdat, and Hany Takla, eds. Christianity and Monasticism in Middle Egypt. British Academic Press, 2015.
  84. Gabry-Thienpont, Séverine. “‪Musiques et charismes chez les chrétiens en Égypte au début du XXIe siècle‪.” Archives de sciences sociales des religions 3 (2015): 187-207, doi: and
  85. Galal, Lise Paulsen. “Minoriteten og revolutionen: Koptere i Egypten efter det arabiske forår.” Babylon Nordisk tidsskrift for Midtøstenstudier 1-2 (2015), doi:
  86. Gänger, Stefanie. “¿La mirada imperialista? Los alemanes y la arqueología peruana.” Histórica 30, no. 2 (2006),
  87. García, Juan Carlos Moreno, and Juan Carlos. “Un mito tenaz: el Egipto antiguo o el paraíso perdido en la obra de los egiptólogos de finales del siglo XIX y comienzos del siglo XX.” Descubriendo el Antiguo Oriente. Pioneros y arqueólogos de Mesopotamia y Egipto a finales del s. XIX y principios del s. XX (2015): 103-122.
  88. Georgy, Joshua Thomas. “Fragmented Geographies: The See of Alexandria, Its Following, and the Estrangements of Modernity.” PhD diss., Columbia University, 2015,
  89. Gilman, Daniel J. Cairo Pop: Youth Music in Contemporary Egypt. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2014.
  90. Gold, Meira. “Ancient Egypt and the geological antiquity of man, 1847–1863.” History of Science (2019),
  91. Golding, David. “Superstitions of the Heathen: Foreign Missions and the Fashioning of American Exceptionalism, 1800-1861.” PhD diss., The Claremont Graduate University, 2016.
  92. Grehan, James. Twilight of the saints: everyday religion in Ottoman Syria and Palestine. Oxford University Press, 2016.
  93. Guirguis, Laure. Copts and the Security State: Violence, Coercion, and Sectarianism in Contemporary Egypt. Stanford University Press, 2016,
  94. Ha, Hyun Jeong. “Non-Muslim students and religious education in Egyptian classrooms.” In Education and the Arab Spring, pp. 115-127. Brill, 2016.
  95. Ha, Hyun Jeong. “Emotions of the weak: violence and ethnic boundaries among Coptic Christians in Egypt.” Ethnic and racial studies 40, no. 1 (2017): 133-151,
  96. Haddad, Yvonne Joshua. “Good Copt, bad Copt: competing narratives on Coptic identity in Egypt and the United States.” Studies in World Christianity 19, no. 3 (2013): 208-232,
  97. Hager, Anna. “Die Kopten und der Arabische Frühling: Zwischen politischer Emanzipation und Minderheitenstatus.” Asiatische Studien – Études Asiatiques. 72(3): 795-817,
  98. Haiduc-Dale, Noah. “Balancing identities.” In Routledge Handbook of Minorities in the Middle East. Routledge, 2018,
  99. Hanna, Michael Wahid. “With Friends like These: Coptic activism in the diaspora.” Middle East Report 267 (2013): 28-31,
  100. Hanoosh, Yasmeen. The Chaldeans: Politics and Identity in Iraq and the American Diaspora. London: I. B. Tauris & Company, Limited, 2019.
  101. Hansen, Henrik Lindberg. Christian-Muslim Relations in Egypt: Politics, Society and Interfaith Encounters. IB Tauris, 2015,
  102. Hasso, Frances S. “Civil and the limits of politics in revolutionary Egypt.” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 35, no. 3 (2015): 605-621, doi:
  103. Hauser, Julia. German Religious Women in Late Ottoman Beirut: Competing Missions. Brill, 2015,
  104. Hayward, Emma. “States and Group Rights: Legal Pluralism and the Decentralization of Judicial Power.” PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, 2019,
  105. Hellyer, H.A. A Revolution Undone: Egypt’s Road Beyond Revolt. Oxford University Press, 2017,
  106. Heo, Angie. “The bodily threat of miracles: Security, sacramentality, and the Egyptian politics of public order.” American Ethnologist 40, no. 1 (2013): 149-164, doi:
  107. Heo, Angie. “The Virgin between Christianity and Islam: Sainthood, media, and modernity in Egypt.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 81, no. 4 (2013): 1117-1138, doi:
  108. Heo, Angie. “Racialized Crossings: Coptic Orthodoxy and Global Christianities.” In Sainthood and Race, pp. 160-173. Routledge, 2014,
  109. Heo, Angie. “Relic technics and the extensible memory of coptic orthodoxy.” Material Religion 11, no. 1 (2015): 50-74,
  110. Heo, Angie. The Political Lives of Saints: Christian-Muslim Mediation in Egypt. University of California Press, 2018,
  111. Heo, Angie. “Sectarianism and Terrorism: The Libya Beheadings and ISIS Violence Against Egypt’s Copts.” In Middle East Christianity, pp. 113-124. Palgrave Pivot, 2020.
  112. Hicks, Edward. “‘Christianity Personified’: Perceval and Pittism.” PhD diss., University of Oxford, 2018.
  113. Holmes, Amy. “There are weeks when decades happen: structure and strategy in the Egyptian revolution.” Mobilization: An International Quarterly 17, no. 4 (2012): 391-410.
  114. Holmes, Amy Austin. Coups and Revolutions: Mass Mobilization, the Egyptian Military, and the United States from Mubarak to Sisi. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019.
  115. Hurd, Elizabeth Shakman. “Alevis Under Law: The Politics of Religious Freedom in Turkey.” Journal of Law and Religion 29, no. 3 (2014): 416–35, doi:
  116. Hurd, Elizabeth Shakman. Beyond Religious Freedom: The New Global Politics of Religion. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015.
  117. Ibrahim, Mina. “A minority at the bar: Revisiting the Coptic Christian (in-) visibility.” Social Compass 66, no. 3 (2019): 366-382,
  118. Ibrahim, Vivian. The Copts of Egypt: The Challenges of Modernisation and Identity. IB Tauris, 2010,
  119. Iskander, Elizabeth. Sectarian conflict in Egypt: Coptic media, identity and representation. Routledge, 2012,
  120. Jalagin, Seija, Inger Marie Okkenhaug, and Maria Småberg. “Introduction: Nordic Missions, Gender and Humanitarian Practices: From Evangelizing to Development.” Scandinavian Journal of History 40, no. 3 (2015): 285–97,
  121. Johnston-Bloom, Ruchama. “Oriental Studies and Jewish Questions: German-Jewish Encounters with Muhammad, the Qur’an, and Islamic Modernities.” PhD diss., The University of Chicago, 2013.
  122. Johnston‐Bloom, Ruchama. “Jews, Muslims and Bildung: the German‐Jewish Orientalist Gustav Weil in Egypt.” Religion Compass 8, no. 2 (2014): 49-59, doi:
  123. Jung, Dietrich. ““Modernization in the Name of God”: Christian Missionaries, Global Modernity, and the Formation of Modern Subjectivities in the Middle East.” In Middle East Christianity, pp. 69-90. Palgrave Pivot, 2020,
  124. Kalmbach, Hilary. Islamic Knowledge and the Making of Modern Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020.
  125. Kartveit, Bard Helge. “Being a Coptic Man: Masculinity, Class, and Social Change among Egyptian Copts.” Men and Masculinities (2018), doi:
  126. Křížek, Daniel, and Záhořík, Jan, eds. Beyond the Arab Spring in North Africa. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2017.
  127. Kudsieh, Suha, and سهى قدسية. “Beyond Colonial Binaries: Amicable Ties among Egyptian and European Scholars, 1820-1850 / ﺗﺨﻄﻴﺎً للثنائيات الكولونيالية: روابط المودة بين العلماء المصريين والأوروبيين ١٨٢٠ – ١٨٥٠.” Alif: Journal of Comparative Poetics, no. 36 (2016): 44-68,
  128. La Rue, George Michael. “Seeking Freedom in Multiple Contexts: An Enslaved Sudanese Woman’s Life Trajectory, ca. 1800–1834.” Journal of Global Slavery 2, no. 1-2 (2017): 11-43, doi:
  129. Laachir, Karima. “Sectarian Strife and “National Unity” In Egyptian Films: A Case Study of Hassan and Morqos.” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 31, no. 1 (2011): 217-226, doi:
  130. Laing, Catriona. “A provocation to mission: Constance Padwick’s study of Muslim devotion.” Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations 24, no. 1 (2013): 27-42, doi:
  131. Larsson, Esbjörn. “Classes in themselves and for themselves: the practice of monitorial education for different social classes in Sweden, 1820−1843.” History of Education 45, no. 5 (2016): 511-529,
  132. Lavie, Limor. Consensus vs. dissensus over the ‘civil state’ model: a key to understanding the diverse outcomes of the Arab Spring in Egypt and Tunisia,” British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies (2019), doi: 10.1080/13530194.2019.1651631
  133. Lecaros, Cecilia. “‘One Moral Improvement, More Allied to the Machinery of Life than Perhaps any Other’: Mid-Nineteenth-Century Punctuality in Context.” English Studies 91, no. 8 (2010): 861-883, doi:
  134. Lee, Robert D. Religion and politics in the Middle East: Identity, ideology, institutions, and attitudes. Westview Press, 2010,
  135. Leirvik, Oddbjørn. Human Conscience and Muslim-Christian Relations. Routledge, 2006,
  136. Levitt, Peggy, and Alexandra Parrs. “Hiding in plain sight: the Coptic Museum in the Egyptian cultural landscape.” International Journal of Cultural Policy 25, no. 6 (2019): 653-666,
  137. Lukasik, Candace. “Conquest of Paradise: Secular binds and Coptic political mobilization.” Middle East Critique 25, no. 2 (2016): 107-125, doi:
  138. Mahmood, Saba. “Religious freedom, the minority question, and geopolitics in the Middle East.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 54, no. 2 (2012): 418-446, doi:
  139. Mahmood, Saba. Religious difference in a secular age: A minority report. Princeton University Press, 2015,
  140. Mak, Lanver. The British in Egypt: Community, Crime and Crises, 1882-1922. IB Tauris, 2012,
  141. Makdisi, Ussama. Artillery of Heaven: American Missionaries and the Failed Conversion of the Middle East. Cornell University Press, 2011,
  142. Makdisi, Ussama. Age of Coexistence: The Ecumenical Frame and the Making of the Modern Arab World. University of California Press, 2019,
  143. Malak, Karim. “False Ideas About ‘Activism’ in Egypt and the Case of Egypt’s Copts: Outside the State and Within the Economy of Power.” Postcolonialist 2, no. 1 (2014): 46–63.
  144. Marzouki, Nadia. “The US Coptic Diaspora and the Limit of Polarization.” Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies 14, no. 3 (2016): 261-276, doi:
  145. May, Helen, Baljit Kaur, and Larry Prochner. Empire, education, and indigenous childhoods: Nineteenth-century missionary infant schools in three British colonies. Routledge, 2016,
  146. McCallum, Fiona. “The political role of the patriarch in the contemporary Middle East.” Middle Eastern Studies 43, no. 6 (2007): 923-940,
  147. McKinney, Stephen J. “David Stow: Christian educator in nineteenth century Scotland.” Journal of Religious Education 68, no. 2 (2020): 233-247, doi:
  148. Mellor, Noha. Egyptian Dream. Edinburgh University Press, 2015, and
  149. Meral, Ziya. How violence shapes religion: belief and conflict in the Middle East and Africa. Cambridge University Press, 2018,
  150. Miccoli, Dario. Histories of the Jews of Egypt: An imagined bourgeoisie, 1880s-1950s. Routledge, 2015.
  151. Mohamoud, Yousra A., Diego F. Cuadros, and Laith J. Abu-Raddad. “Characterizing the Copts in Egypt: Demographic, socioeconomic and health indicators.” QScience Connect 2013, no. 1 (2013): 22, doi:
  152. Monier, Elizabeth Iskander. “The Arab Spring and Coptic–Muslim Relations: From Mubarak to the Muslim Brotherhood.” European Yearbook of Minority Issues Online 11, no. 1 (2014): 167-186, doi:
  153. Mostafa, Dalia Said.Shifting narratives of the police in Egyptian cinema before and after the January 2011 revolution,” Contemporary Levant 3:2 (2018), 137-152, doi: 10.1080/20581831.2018.1541529
  154. Mouftah, Nermeen. “Building Life: Faith, Literacy Development and Muslim Citizenship in Revolutionary Egypt.” PhD diss., University of Toronto, 2014.
  155. Mouftah, Nermeen. “Ignorance: Islam, Literacy, and Status in the Shadow of Revolution.” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 38, no. 3 (2018): 524-539,
  156. Mousa, Salma. “To Protest or not to Protest? The Christian Predicament in the Syrian and Egyptian Uprisings.” International Journal of Arts & Sciences 6, no. 1 (2013): 275.
  157. Moussa, Helene. “Coptic Icons: Expressions of Social Agency and Coptic Identity.” Studies in Coptic Culture: Transmission and Interaction (2016): 155.
  158. Müller, Hannelore. Religionen im Nahen Osten Band 2: Türkei, Ägypten, Saudi-Arabien. Berlin: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2015.
  159. Murre-van den Berg, H. L. “Searching for Common Ground: Jews and Christians in the Modern Middle East.” In Modernity, Minority, and the Public Sphere: Jews and Christians in the Middle East. Brill, 2016,
  160. Murre-van den Berg, Heleen. “From Arab Christians to marginalized minorities.” Routledge Handbook of Citizenship in the Middle East and North Africa (2020): 364,
  161. Nassar, Aya. “To Stand By the Ruins of a Revolutionary City.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 52, no. 3 (2020): 510-515,
  162. Naumescu, Vlad. “Pedagogies of Prayer: Teaching Orthodoxy in South India.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 61, no. 2 (2019): 389-418, doi:
  163. Olivato, Laís. “Um projeto educacional nas Independências: a circulação do plano de ensino mútuo na América do Sul (1810-1830).” PhD diss., Universidade de São Paulo.
  164. Olsen, Pelle Valentin. “Between Work and School: Leisure and Modernity in Hashemite Baghdad, 1921–1958.” Order No. 28022827, The University of Chicago, 2020.
  165. O’Mahony, Anthony, and Emma Loosley, eds. Christian Responses to Islam: Muslim-Christian Relations in the Modern World. Manchester University Press, 2008,
  166. Paas, Steven. Johannes Rebmann: A Servant of God in Africa Before the Rise of Western Colonialism. Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2018,
  167. Parker, William Riley. “Robert Douglas: American Missionary in the Cold War Middle East.” PhD diss., The Florida State University, 2019.
  168. Parolin, Gianluca P. “Shall We Ask Al-Azhar? Maybe Not: Lessons from the Ṣukūk Bill Incident.” Middle East Law and Governance 7, no. 2 (2015): 212-235, doi:
  169. Prakash, Archana G. “Negotiating modernity: education and translation in nineteenth century Egypt.” PhD diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2016,
  170. Pratt, Nicola. “After the 25 January Revolution: Democracy or authoritarianism in Egypt?.” In Revolutionary Egypt, pp. 65-85. Routledge, 2015,
  171. Rajagopal, Arvind, and Anupama Rao, eds. Media and Utopia: History, imagination and technology. Routledge, 2017.
  172. Ramzy, Carolyn. “The Politics of (Dis) Engagement: Coptic Christian Revival and the Performative Politics of Song.” PhD diss., University of Toronto, 2014.
  173. Ramzy, Carolyn M. “To Die is Gain: Singing a Heavenly Citizenship among Egypt’s Coptic Christians.” Ethnos 80, no. 5 (2015): 649-670,
  174. Ramzy, Carolyn. “Modern singing sons of the Pharaohs: Transcriptions and Orientalism in a Digital Coptic Music Collection.” Ethnologies 37, no. 1 (2015): 65-88,
  175. Ramzy, Carolyn. “Autotuned Belonging: Coptic Popular Song and the Politics of Neo-Pentecostal Pedagogies.” Ethnomusicology 60, no. 3 (2016): 434-458, doi:
  176. Ramzy, Carolyn M. “Repatriating an Egyptian Modernity.” The Oxford Handbook of Musical Repatriation (2019): 403,
  177. Ratliff, Walter R. “Religious Freedom Advocacy and the Challenge of Pluralism: Principles of Engagement.” PhD diss., Georgetown University, 2018,
  178. Reid, Donald Malcolm. Contesting Antiquity in Egypt: Archaeologies, Museums, and the Struggle for Identities from World War I to Nasser. AUC Press, 2015,
  179. Rey, Virginie, ed. The Art of Minorities: Cultural Representation in Museums of the Middle East and North Africa. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2020.
  180. Rioli, Maria Chiara. A Liminal Church: Refugees, Conversions and the Latin Diocese of Jerusalem, 1946–1956. Brill, 2020,
  181. Roald, Anne-Sofie, ed. Religious Minorities in the Middle East: Domination, Self-Empowerment, Accommodation. Brill, 2011,
  182. Robson, Laura. “Recent perspectives on Christianity in the modern Arab world.” History Compass 9, no. 4 (2011): 312-325,
  183. Rugh, Andrea B. Christians in Egypt: Strategies and Survival. Springer, 2016,
  184. Ryan, J. Michael, and Rizzo, Hellen, eds. Gender in the Middle East and North Africa: Contemporary Issues and Challenges. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2019.
  185. Ryzova, Lucie. The Age of the Efendiyya: Passages to Modernity in National-Colonial Egypt. Oxford University Press, 2014,
  186. Sacks, Jeffrey. Iterations of Loss: Mutilation and Aesthetic Form, al-Shidyaq to Darwish. Fordham Univ Press, 2015,
  187. Şahin, Emrah. Faithful Encounters: Authorities and American Missionaries in the Ottoman Empire. McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2018.
  188. Sallam, Hesham. “The Egyptian Revolution and the Politics of Histories.” PS: Political Science and Politics 46, no. 2 (2013): 248-58,
  189. Sands-O’Connor, Karen. “Impertinent Miracles at the British Museum: Egyptology and Edwardian Fantasies for Young People.” Journal of the Fantastic in the Arts 19, no. 2 (2008): 224-237,
  190. Santing, Kiki M. Imagining the Perfect Society in Muslim Brotherhood Journals: An Analysis of Al-Da’wa and Liwa’ Al-Islam. Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter GmbH, 2020.
  191. Scherer, Matthew. Political Theology, Democracy, and the Exception in the Egyptian Revolution,” Political Theology 18:7 (2017), 577-593, doi: 10.1080/1462317X.2016.1274465
  192. Schneider, Suzanne. Mandatory separation: religion, education, and mass politics in Palestine. Stanford University Press, 2018.
  193. Scott, Rachel. The challenge of political Islam: Non-Muslims and the Egyptian state. Stanford University Press, 2010,
  194. Scott, Rachel M. “Citizenship, Public Order, and State Sovereignty: Article 3 of the Egyptian Constitution and the ‘Divinely Revealed Religions’.” In The Crisis of Citizenship in the Arab World, pp. 375-406. Brill, 2017.
  195. Scott, Rachel M. “Islamic Law, Unitary State Law, and Communal Law: Divorce and Remarriage in Egypt’s Coptic Community.” Exchange 49, no. 3-4 (2020): 215-236.
  196. Sharkey, Heather J. American Evangelicals in Egypt : Missionary Encounters in an Age of Empire. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008.
  197. Sharkey, Heather J. “American Presbyterians, Freedmen’s Missions, and the Nile Valley: Missionary History, Racial Orders, and Church Politics on the World Stage.” Journal of Religious History 35, no. 1 (2011): 24-42, doi:
  198. Sharkey, Heather J., ed. Cultural Conversions: unexpected consequences of Christian missionary encounters in the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2013.
  199. Sharkey, Heather J. A History of Muslims, Christians, and Jews in the Middle East. Cambridge University Press, 2017,
  200. Sheehi, Stephen. “Towards a Critical Theory of al-Nahḍah: Epistemology, Ideology and Capital”, Journal of Arabic Literature 43, 2-3: 269-298, doi:
  201. Shenoda, Anthony George. Cultivating mystery: Miracles and a Coptic moral imaginary. PhD diss., Harvard University, 2010.
  202. Shenoda, Anthony. “The politics of faith: on faith, skepticism, and miracles among Coptic Christians in Egypt.” Ethnos 77, no. 4 (2012): 477-495, doi:
  203. Smith, Julianna Kaye. “Coptic Papacy and Power in a Changing Post-Mubarak Egypt.” Master’s thesis, The Ohio State University, 2013,
  204. Soliman, Samer. “The radical turn of Coptic activism.” Cairo Papers in Social Science 29, no. 2-3 (2009): 135-155,
  205. Stetter, Stephan, and Moussa Nabo, Mitra, eds. Middle East Christianity: Local Practices, World Societal Entanglements. Springer International Publishing AG, 2020.
  206. Stokes-DuPass, Nicole, and Fruja, Ramona. Citizenship, Belonging, and Nation-States in the Twenty-First Century. New York: Palgrave Macmillan US, 2016.
  207. Stuart, John. “Empire, mission, ecumenism, and human rights: ‘religious liberty’ in Egypt, 1919–1956.” Church History 83, no. 1 (2014): 110-134, doi:
  208. Suriel (Coptic Bishop of Melbourne). “Habib Girgis, Coptic Orthodox Educator and a Light in the Darkness.” PhD diss., Fordham University, 2014.
  209. Suriel (Coptic Bishop of Melbourne). Habib Girgis: Coptic Orthodox Educator and a Light in the Darkness. St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 2017,
  210. Swartz, Rebecca. “‘The Gift of Education’: Emancipation and Government Education in the West Indies, Britain and Beyond.” In Education and Empire, pp. 35-72. Palgrave Macmillan, 2019,
  211. Tadros, Mariz. “Vicissitudes in the Entente between the Coptic Orthodox Church and the State in Egypt (1952–2007).” International Journal of Middle East Studies 41, no. 2 (2009): 269-287, doi:
  212. Tadros, Mariz. Copts at the crossroads: The challenges of building inclusive democracy in Egypt. Oxford University Press, 2013,
  213. Tadros, Mariz. “Christians coping with insecurities in the aftermath of the Arab revolts: Converging and diverging strategies.” The Review of Faith & International Affairs 15, no. 1 (2017): 21-30, doi:
  214. Tejirian, Eleanor H., and Reeva Spector Simon. Conflict, conquest, and conversion: two thousand years of Christian missions in the Middle East. Columbia University Press, 2014.
  215. Valtolina, Giovanni Giulio, and Paola Barachetti. “Religious Belonging and (Forced) Migration: a Study on Migrant Coptic Minors in Italy.” In Migrants and Religion: Paths, Issues, and Lenses, pp. 615-637. Brill, 2020.
  216. van Doorn-Harder, Nelly. “Finding a Platform: Studying the Copts in the 19th and 20th Centuries.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 42, no. 3 (2010): 479-482, doi:
  217. van Doorn-Harder, Nelly, ed. Copts in Context: Negotiating Identity, Tradition, and Modernity. University of South Carolina Press, 2017.
  218. van Raemdonck, An. “The Politics of Christian Love: Shaping Everyday Social Interaction and Political Sensibilities Among Coptic Egyptians.” Religions 10, no. 2 (2019): 105, doi:
  219. Verdeil, Chantal. “Histoire contemporaine de l’éducation au Moyen-Orient (XIXe-XXe siècle). Essai de synthèse historiographique.” Histoire de l’éducation 148 (2017): 9-40,
  220. Vereni, Piero. “Come si rimane. Diaspore religiose e strategie di permanenza culturale.” Quaderni di diritto e politica ecclesiastica 23, no. 1 (2020): 23-39.
  221. Vidal, Jordi. Interpretación del antiguo Israel, entre la historia y la política. Edicions Universitat Barcelona, 2017.
  222. Waardenburg, Jean Jacques, ed. Muslim-Christian perceptions of dialogue today: experiences and expectations. Peeters Pub & Booksellers, 2000.
  223. Walter, Alissa Joy. “A minority within a minority: a history of women in the Egyptian Coptic Orthodox and Evangelical churches (1854-present).” Master’s thesis, Georgetown University, 2011,
  224. White, Carron. “‘A Christian by Religion and a Muslim by Fatherland’: Egyptian Discourses on Coptic Equality.” Master’s thesis, The Ohio State University, 2011,
  225. Whitmire, Keith Glenn. “Counter-Revolution and Egypt’s Lower Middle Class.” PhD diss., University of Arkansas, 2018,
  226. Wien, Peter. Arab Nationalism: The Politics of History and Culture in the Modern Middle East. Routledge, 2017.
  227. Womack, Deanna Ferree. “Syrian Christians and Arab-Islamic Identity: Expressions of Belonging in the Ottoman Empire and America.” Studies in World Christianity 25, no. 1 (2019): 29-49,
  228. Womack, Deanna Ferree. Protestants, Gender and the Arab Renaissance in Late Ottoman Syria. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2019.
  229. Wright, Susannah. “Primary School Education.” Handbook of Historical Studies in Education: Debates, Tensions, and Directions (2020): 225-241.
  230. Yeaw, Katrina Elizabeth Anderson. “Women, Resistance and the Creation of New Gendered Frontiers in the Making of Modern Libya, 1890-1980.” PhD diss., Georgetown University, 2018,
  231. Yefet, Bosmat. “Defending the Egyptian nation: national unity and Muslim attitudes toward the Coptic minority.” Middle Eastern Studies 55, no. 4 (2019): 638-654, doi:
  232. Yefet-Avshalom, Bosmat, and Luis Roniger. “A Discourse on Trial: The Promotion of Human Rights and the Prosecution of Sa‘ad Eddin Ibrahim in Egypt.” Journal of human rights 5, no. 2 (2006): 185-204, doi:
  233. Yildiz, Murat Cihan. “Strengthening Male Bodies and Building Robust Communities: Physical Culture in the Late Ottoman Empire.” PhD diss., UCLA, 2015,
  234. Yount, Kathryn M. “Symbolic gender politics, religious group identity, and the decline in female genital cutting in Minya, Egypt.” Social Forces 82, no. 3 (2004): 1063-1090, doi:
  235. Yousef, Hoda A. “Seeking the Educational Cure: Egypt and European Education, 1805-1920s.” European Education 44, no. 4 (2012): 51-66, doi:
  236. Yousef, Hoda A. Composing Egypt: Reading, Writing, and the Emergence of a Modern Nation, 1870-1930. Stanford University Press, 2016,
  237. Yousef, Hoda A. “Losing the future? Constructing educational need in Egypt, 1820s to 1920s.” History of Education 46, no. 5 (2017): 561-577.
  238. Yousef, Hoda A. “Pleading for a place in modern Egypt: negotiating poverty and patriarchy, 1908–1913.” British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies (2018): 1-18.
  239. Zabad, Ibrahim. Middle Eastern minorities: The impact of the Arab spring. Routledge, 2017.
  240. Zakarriya, Jihan. “Public Feminism, Female Shame, and Sexual Violence in Modern Egypt.” Journal of International Women’s Studies 20, no. 7 (08, 2019): 113-128.

Follow me on Twitter