Kuttab 1925

The principal focus of my research is the social and cultural history of the modern Middle East. In my first book, I examined the connections between education and the rise of the modern state in nineteenth-century Egypt. To this end, my work chronicled moments of contestation as to both the methods and the purposes of education — contestation between Anglican and Presbyterian missionaries, Ottoman and Egyptian officials, Coptic priests and Muslim reformers.

I am currently completing a second book, tentatively entitled A History of the Coptic Community in Modern Egypt. This book urges a reconceptualization of the ways in which modern Coptic history is written – a shift away from the elitist focus in the existing historiography on lay ‘reformers’ and Church leaders. In particular, the book traces how, in recent decades, the Coptic Church has become more insular and dependent upon the Egyptian state than ever before, and inadvertently promoted the very sectarianism that Coptic leaders claim to disdain.

In a different vein, given a longstanding interest in the popular culture of the Nasser era, I am undertaking both teaching and research in the history of Egyptian cinema — specifically, the film culture of the 1950s and 1960s. I am particularly interested in exploring the images of village poverty, colonial violence, family discord, and the subjugation of women that pervade such films. My research considers the links between these images and such state priorities as eradicating ‘backwardness’ and ‘superstition,’ pacifying the ‘social body,’ and consolidating ‘modern’ forms of subjectivity — among them, the companionate spouse, the productive worker, and the patriotic citizen.

Flyer May 4-Recovered


SELECTED PUBLICATIONS

[Google Scholar page, Academia.edu page, and SFU Summit Repository page]

Abstract: The sparse scholarship on the political role of Coptic Christians in modern Egypt almost always takes the Coptic Orthodox Church as a point of departure, assuming that the head of the church, the Coptic patriarch, is not only the spiritual leader of the community but its political leader as well. This article argues that the disproportionate attention afforded to the Coptic Orthodox Church in this scholarship has obscured intra-communal dynamics of the Copts that are essential to an understanding of their political role. Through an analysis of historical struggles between the Coptic clergy and the Coptic laity for influence in Egyptian politics, as well as a particular focus on how these struggles have played out in the arena of personal status law, the article demonstrates that Egyptian politics and Coptic communal dynamics are deeply intertwined, to a degree often disregarded both by Copts and by Egypt analysts.

  • From Mission to Modernity: Evangelicals, Reformers, and Education in Nineteenth-Century Egypt (London: I.B. Tauris, 2011).

Abstract: Through a close analysis of the links between nineteenth-century Protestant missionary thought and the British and Foreign School Society (BFSS) this article suggests that to distinguish Enlightenment educational and social reform from evangelism is mistaken. Emblematic of the social reform projects which emerged in England as responses to the challenges of the French Revolution and rapid urbanisation, the BFSS was the outgrowth of Joseph Lancaster’s efforts at spreading the method of education he pioneered, the monitorial system, throughout the British Isles and, ultimately, the world. Despite the strong association between the BFSS and various utilitarian thinkers, evangelicals of late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth-century England came to view the Society and the monitorial system as means by which to integrate all the peoples of the world into the Lord’s dominion. Becoming part of that dominion entailed subjecting oneself to constant moral scrutiny, and monitorial schools were regarded as a means by which to ensure such self-examination. In short, missionaries seized upon monitorial schools because their aims were parallel to those of educational reformers in the metropole. Where home reformers aimed at the normalisation of the body of English political subjects, the development of the English social body, missionary reformers aimed at the normalisation of the body of God’s children.

Abstract: Scholars of Egyptian history and politics face a dearth of analytical studies of the modern Coptic Church and community. This state of affairs is due to various factors of a methodological, theoretical, and practical nature. In practical terms, both the Egyptian state and the Coptic Orthodox Church have discouraged exploration of Coptic identity given the political taboo of sectarianism. In theoretical terms, Edward Said’s Orientalism led to concerns among scholars about overemphasizing faith in their analyses of Middle Eastern history and politics. In methodological terms, modern Coptic historiography remains hobbled by an ‘enlightenment paradigm’ which discounts the political potential and action of subaltern and clerical forces within the community. This article urges a concern with the ways in which these subaltern and clerical forces shaped the Coptic ‘discursive tradition’ in the course of the twentieth century, as a means by which to restore Copts to modern Egyptian historiography, not as victims or symbols, but as actors in their own right.

Abstract: The English Church Missionary Society (CMS) dispatched a contingent of missionaries to Egypt in 1825. This article analyses the methods and impact of that contingent. The schools that the CMS missionaries introduced are cast not as vehicles of enlightenment — as is frequently the case in mission historiography — but as technologies of power. Specifically, the article recounts how the head of the mission, the Reverend John Lieder, deployed Lancaster schools among the Coptic Christians of Cairo to effect not merely a spiritual, but further, a cultural conversion of this Orthodox community. Lieder, his predecessors, and his contemporaries in the Mediterranean field sought to instil in the Copts the “evangelical ethos” of industry, discipline, and order. The article links this CMS project of cultural conversion to the process of state-building in Egypt. Indeed, Lieder was a pioneer purveyor of technologies of power that would prove indispensable to late-nineteenth-century elites in their efforts to produce, in the subaltern strata of Egyptian society, industrious and disciplined political subjects resigned to their lowly positions in the Egyptian social order.

Abstract: Whereas the political claims of Egyptian Islamists have attracted much attention in Western media and scholarly circles, only rarely have such circles acknowledged the role played by ethno-religious consciousness among Coptic Christians in Egyptian political life. This article analyzes the development of this consciousness through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, as well as the socio-economic roots of ‘Coptist’ political action. Accorded particular attention is the emergence of an explicitly sectarian political discourse among groups of middle-class Copts in the 1970s, and the related spread of ethnic consciousness through the Coptic community at large since that time.

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PAST LECTURES AND PRESENTATIONS

  • “Writing the History of a Revolution in Progress: The Challenges of Interpreting the Arab Spring as an Insider-Outsider,” Coptic Canadian History Project third annual conference, Archives of Ontario, Toronto, ON, May 4, 2019.
  • “Egypt’s Church-State Partnership and the End of Equal Citizenship for Coptic Christians,” Tower Center, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX, April 11, 2019.
  • “A Missionary Pope in a Secular Age? Reappraising the Role of Kirollos VI in Modern Egyptian History,” Middle East Studies Association 52nd Annual Meeting, San Antonio, TX, November 17, 2018.
  • “From Citizenship to Protection in Egyptian Public Life: The Role of the Coptic Orthodox Church in Modern Sectarianism,” Middle East Studies Association 51st Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, November 20, 2017.
  • “Combating Sectarian Violence in Egypt: Is There a Role for the Egyptian Diaspora?” keynote address for Coptic Canadian History Project conference, York University, Toronto, ON, April 6, 2017.
  • “Life or Death: Anxiety About the Urban in 1950s Egyptian Cinema,” American University in Cairo, Egypt, May 4, 2015.
  • “Nation and Taboo: Writing the Copt into Modern Egyptian History,” University of Houston, TX, January 26, 2015.
  • “Has Citizenship Got a Future in Post-Revolutionary Egypt?” Egyptian Revolution Working Group, Center for Contemporary Arab Studies, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, April 4, 2013.
  • “The Multiple Meanings of ‘Aqbat al-Mahgar’: Diaspora Copts as Signifier in Egyptian Politics,” First Annual Symposium in Arab Canadian Studies, Arab Canadian Studies Research Group, University of Ottawa, Canada, February 15-16, 2013.
  • “Copts and the Millet Partnership: The Intra-Communal Dynamics Behind Egyptian Sectarianism,” International Symposium on ‘Politics of Religious Freedom: Contested Norms and Local Practices in the Middle East and North Africa,’ Henry Luce Foundation Initiative on Religion and International Affairs, Cairo, Egypt, January 9-10, 2013.
  • “From 1911 to 2011: Sectarian Conflicts in Comparative Perspective,” Fifth Annual Coptic Studies Symposium, University of Toronto, Canada, March 24, 2012.
  • “Death and the Modern: Projections of the City in 1950s Egypt,” Film Series on ‘Terror, Occupation, Partition: Making Meaning of Post/Colonial Violences,’ Liu Institute for Global Issues, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, March 21-23, 2012.
  • “Salafis, Sabotage, and Sectarianism: Religion in Egypt’s Transition to Democracy,” Invited Lecture, Centre for Studies in Religion and Society, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, November 25, 2011.
  • “Revolution in Egypt: Sights, Sounds, Significance,” Invited Lecture, Portland State University, Portland, OR, May 23, 2011.
  • “Egyptian History Without ‘Egypt’? Privileging Pluralism in a Post-Revolution Pedagogy,” International Conference on ‘Teaching the Middle East After the Tunisian and Egyptian Revolutions,’ George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, May 13-14, 2011.
  • “Salafis, Sabotage, and Sectarianism: Thoughts on Coptic Protest in Revolutionary Egypt,” International Workshop on ‘After Tahrir: Egypt’s Ongoing Social Transformation,’ Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, April 22, 2011.
  • “Bringing the Copts Back In: Why the Copts Are Essential to Understanding Modern Egyptian History,” International Conference on ‘The Future of Coptic Studies: Theories, Methods, Topics,’ Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, September 17-19, 2010.

CITATIONS

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  2. Abdou, Ehaab D. “‘Confused by multiple deities, ancient Egyptians embraced monotheism’: analysing historical thinking and inclusion in Egyptian history textbooks.” Journal of Curriculum Studies 48, no. 2 (2016): 226-251, doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/00220272.2015.1093175
  3. Abdou, Ehaab D. “Copts in Egyptian history textbooks: towards an integrated framework for analyzing minority representations.” Journal of Curriculum Studies 50, no. 4 (2018): 476-507, https://doi.org/10.1080/00220272.2017.1398352
  4. Abou-El-Fadl, Reem. “Early Pan- Arabism in Egypt’s July Revolution: The Free Officers’ Political Formation and Policy-Making, 1946-54.” Nations & Nationalism 21, no. (2015): 289–308, https://doi.org/10.1111/nana.12122
  5. Abou-El-Fadl, Reem. Foreign Policy as Nation Making: Turkey and Egypt in the Cold War. Cambridge University Press, 2018, https://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=YHaIDwAAQBAJ
  6. Adar, S. “Regimes of Political Belonging: Turkey and Egypt in Comparative Perspective.” In Citizenship, Belonging, and Nation-States in the Twenty-First Century. Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-53604-4_6
  7. Adly, Mereet Hany. “Internal Reformation Within the Contemporary Coptic Imagined Community: The Sunday School Movement and Mechanisms of Minority Survival.” Journal of Religious & Theological Information 18, no. 2-3 (2019): 75-91, https://doi.org/10.1080/10477845.2019.1605578
  8. Al-Musawi, Muhsin J. The Medieval Islamic Republic of Letters: Arabic Knowledge Construction. University of Notre Dame Pess, 2015, https://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=bFUFDgAAQBAJ
  9. Aldrich, Richard. “The British and Foreign School Society, Past and Present.” History of Education Researcher 91 (2013): 5-12.
  10. Allam, Nermin. Women and the Egyptian Revolution: Engagement and Activism during the 2011 Arab Uprisings. Cambridge University Press, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108378468
  11. Arafat, Alaa Al-Din. Egypt in Crisis: The Fall of Islamism and Prospects of Democratization. Springer International Publishing AG, 2017.
  12. Arifianto, Alexander R. “Religious Freedom, Authoritarianism, and Inter-Religious Conflict: A Theoretical Framework.” APSA 2013 Annual Meeting Paper, https://ssrn.com/abstract=2299300
  13. Armanios, Febe. “Approaches to Coptic history after 641.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 42, no. 3 (2010): 483-485, doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020743810000504
  14. Armanios, Febe. Coptic Christianity in Ottoman Egypt. Oxford University Press, 2011, https://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=bXw7DwAAQBAJ
  15. Armbrust, Walter. “The formation of national culture in Egypt in the interwar period: Cultural trajectories.” History Compass 7, no. 1 (2009): 155-180, doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1478-0542.2008.00571.x
  16. Armbrust, Walter. “A history of new media in the Arab Middle East.” Journal for cultural research 16, no. 2-3 (2012): 155-174, doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/14797585.2012.647666
  17. Asad, Talal. “Fear and the ruptured state: Reflections on Egypt after Mubarak.” Social Research: An International Quarterly 79, no. 2 (2012): 271-298, http://www.jstor.org/stable/23350066
  18. Atkins, Gareth. “William Jowett’s Christian Researches: British Protestants and Religious Plurality in the Mediterranean, Syria and the Holy Land, 1815–30.” Studies in Church History 51 (2015): 216-231, doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0424208400050208
  19. Auji, Hala. “Between Script and Print: Exploring Publications of the American Syria Mission and the Nascent Press in the Arab World, 1834–1860.” PhD diss., State University of New York at Binghamton, 2013.
  20. Ayad, Mariam, ed. Studies in Coptic Culture: Transmission and Interaction. AUC Press, 2016.
  21. Ayalon, Ami. The Arabic Print Revolution. Cambridge University Press, 2016, https://books.google.ca/books?id=WMjxDAAAQBAJ
  22. Baeza, Andrés. “Circulación de biblias protestantes y tolerancia religiosa en la América del Sur post-independiente: La visión de Luke Matthews, 1826-1829.” Economía y Política 3, no. 2 (2016): 5-35.
  23. Baeza, Andrés. “One Local Dimension of a Global Project: The Introduction of the Monitorial System of Education in Post‐Independent Chile, 1821–1833.” Bulletin of Latin American Research 36, no. 3 (2017): 340-353, https://doi.org/10.1111/blar.12483
  24. Bal, Mustafa. “Anatomy of a Revolution: the 2011 Egyptian Uprising.” PhD diss., Columbia University, 2014, https://doi.org/10.7916/D89K48CF
  25. Barak, On. “On innocence: Blasphemy, pan-Islam and the uneven mediation of utopia.” In Media and Utopia, pp. 319-353. Routledge, 2017, https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315091303
  26. Barkey, Karen, and George Gavrilis. “The Ottoman millet system: Non-territorial autonomy and its contemporary legacy.” Ethnopolitics 15, no. 1 (2016): 24-42, doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/17449057.2015.1101845
  27. Baron, Beth. The Orphan Scandal: Christian Missionaries and the Rise of the Muslim Brotherhood. Stanford University Press, 2014, https://books.google.ca/books?id=7_GyAwAAQBAJ
  28. Baron, Beth. “Perilous Beginnings: Infant Mortality, Public Health and the State in Egypt.” In Gendering Global Humanitarianism in the Twentieth Century, pp. 195-219. Palgrave Macmillan, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-44630-7_8
  29. Barsoum, Kirollos A. “‘Traditional’ charity versus ‘modern’ development: philanthropy and communal boundaries in the Coptic Orthodox Church.” Master’s thesis, Indiana University, 2016, http://hdl.handle.net/1805/10784
  30. Becker, Adam H. Revival and awakening: American evangelical missionaries in Iran and the origins of Assyrian nationalism. University of Chicago Press, 2015, https://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=WEGNBgAAQBAJ
  31. Belge, Ceren, and Ekrem Karakoç. “Minorities in the Middle East: Ethnicity, religion, and support for authoritarianism.” Political Research Quarterly 68, no. 2 (2015): 280-292, https://doi.org/10.1177/1065912915580627
  32. Bland, Weston. “Copts, the State and the 1949–1950 al-Majlis al-Millī Electoral Crisis: Articulating Community in a Time of Anxiety.” Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations (2019): 1-20, https://doi.org/10.1080/09596410.2019.1619978
  33. Bland, Weston. “Wild Libya: narratives of violence on Egypt’s Western border.” The Journal of North African Studies (2020): 1-33.
  34. Blaydes, Lisa, and Rachel M. Gillum. “Religiosity-of-interviewer effects: Assessing the impact of veiled enumerators on survey response in Egypt.” Politics and Religion 6, no. 3 (2013): 459-482, doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1755048312000557
  35. Booth, Marilyn, ed. The Long 1890s in Egypt: Colonial Quiescence, Subterranean Resistance. Edinburgh University Press, 2014, https://books.google.ca/books?id=50OrBgAAQBAJ
  36. Botros, Ghada. “Religious identity as an historical narrative: Coptic Orthodox immigrant churches and the representation of history.” Journal of Historical Sociology 19, no. 2 (2006): 174-201, doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6443.2006.00277.x
  37. Boulos, Samir. “Cultural entanglements and missionary spaces: European evangelicals in Egypt (1900-1956).” PhD diss., University of Zurich, 2015.
  38. Boulos, Samir. European Evangelicals in Egypt (1900-1956): Cultural Entanglements and Missionary Spaces. Brill, 2016, https://books.google.ca/books?id=t3ykDAAAQBAJ
  39. Boum, Aomar, and Daadaoui, Mohamed. Historical Dictionary of the Arab Uprisings. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2020.
  40. Bouvier, Craig Lawrence. “Reading Dewey and Foucault together towards a philosophy of discipline as production in schools.” PhD diss., University of Alabama, 2017, http://ir.ua.edu/handle/123456789/3563
  41. Brand, Laurie A. Official Stories: Politics and National Narratives in Egypt and Algeria. Stanford University Press, 2014.
  42. Brinkerhoff, Jennifer M. Institutional reform and diaspora entrepreneurs: The in-between advantage. Oxford University Press, 2016, https://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=EFCsDAAAQBAJ
  43. Brooke, Steven, and Neil Ketchley. “Social and Institutional Origins of Political Islam.” American Political Science Review 112, no. 2 (2018): 376-394, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055417000636
  44. Brooks Hedstrom, Darlene L. The Monastic Landscape of Late Antique Egypt: An Archaeological Reconstruction. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2017.
  45. Brownlee, Jason. “Social Relationships and the Prevention of Anti-Christian Violence in Egypt.” The Middle East Journal 72, no. 1 (2018): 66-88, https://doi.org/10.3751/72.1.14
  46. Caruso, Marcelo. “World systems, world society, world polity: theoretical insights for a global history of education.” History of Education 37, no. 6 (2008): 825-840, doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/00467600802158256
  47. Caruso, Marcelo, and Eugenia Roldán Vera. “Pluralizing Meanings: The Monitorial System of Education in Latin America in the Early Nineteenth Century,” Paedagogica Historica 41:6 (2005), 645-654, doi: 10.1080/00309230500336707
  48. Chaillot, Christine. “The life and situation of the Coptic Orthodox church today.” Studies in World Christianity 15, no. 3 (2009): 199-216, doi: https://doi.org/10.3366/E1354990109000574
  49. Challis, Debbie. The archaeology of race: the eugenic ideas of Francis Galton and Flinders Petrie. A&C Black, 2013, https://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=HHSof6toZlgC
  50. Christiansen, Lars Gunnar. “Custodians of social peace or contenders in a popularity contest? The Egyptian Armed Forces and Egypt’s Coptic Christians.” CMI Working Paper (2015).
  51. Coakley, John, ed. Non-territorial Autonomy in Divided Societies: Comparative Perspectives. Routledge, 2018, https://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=AwpQDwAAQBAJ
  52. Coen, Alise E. “Rethinking Anti-Americanism: Egyptian Perceptions of the United States.” PhD diss., University of Delaware, 2009.
  53. Cohen, Martine. “Diaspora Juive: entre nostalgie de Sion et attrait d’autres terres promises.” Quaderni di diritto e politica ecclesiastica 23, no. 1 (2020): 49-58.
  54. Counihan, Chris. “Endogenous education in India and the implications of universal peer teaching in the 19th century.” In Handbook of International Development and Education. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, https://doi.org/10.4337/9781783473540.00025
  55. Cricco, Massimiliano, Houssi, Leila El, and Melcangi, Alessia, eds. North African Societies after the Arab Spring : Between Democracy and Islamic Awakening. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2016.
  56. Culang, Jeffrey. “Liberal Translations: Secular Concepts, Law, and Religion in Colonial Egypt.” PhD diss., City University of New York, 2017, https://academicworks.cuny.edu/gc_etds/2335
  57. Culang, Jeffrey. ““The Shari‘a must go”: Seduction, Moral Injury, and Religious Freedom in Egypt’s Liberal Age.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 60, no. 2 (2018): 446-475, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0010417518000117
  58. Davis, R.A., Conroy, J.C. and Clague, J. “Schools as Factories: The Limits of a Metaphor.” Journal of Philosophy of Education 54 (2020): 1471-1488, https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9752.12525
  59. Delhaye, Grégoire. “Les racines du dynamisme de la diaspora copte.” EchoGéo (2008), doi: https://doi.org/10.4000/echogeo.6963
  60. Delhaye, Gregoire. “Contemporary Muslim-Christian Relations in Egypt: Local Dynamics and Foreign Influences.” In Religious Minorities in the Middle East, pp. 71-96. Brill, 2012.
  61. Dimock, Elizabeth. “Women, Missions and Modernity: From Anti-Slavery to Missionary Zeal, 1780s to 1840s.” Itinerario 34, no. 3 (2010): 53-66, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0165115310000689
  62. Dinno, Khalid S. “The Syrian Orthodox Christians in the Late Ottoman and Post-Ottoman Periods: Crisis and Revival.” PhD diss., University of Toronto, 2015.
  63. Dowell, Anna. “Landscapes of Belonging: Protestant Activism in Revolutionary Egypt.” International Journal of Sociology 45, no. 3 (2015): 190-205, https://doi.org/10.1080/00207659.2015.1045345
  64. du Roy, Gaétan. “Le prêtre des chiffonniers.” PhD diss., Université catholique de Louvain, 2014.
  65. Edwards, Anthony. “Revisiting a Nahḍa origin story: Majmaʿ al-Tahdhīb and the Protestant community in 1840s Beirut.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 82, no. 3 (2019): 427-451, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0041977X19000661
  66. El Achi, Soha C. “Children and Slave Emancipation in French Algeria and Tunisia (1846-1892).” PhD diss., Georgetown University, 2017.
  67. Elsadda, Hoda. “A ‘phantom freedom in a phantom modernity’? Protestant missionaries, domestic ideology and narratives of modernity in an Arab context.” Rethinking History 15, no. 2 (2011): 209-228, doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/13642529.2011.564821
  68. Elsässer, Sebastian. “Muslims and Christians in Egyptian State Formation: A New Beginning in 2011?” In State Formation and Identity in the Middle East and North Africa, pp. 139-157. Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137369604_7
  69. Elsässer, Sebastian. The Coptic Question in the Mubarak Era. Oxford University Press, 2014, https://books.google.ca/books?id=-WyVAwAAQBAJ
  70. Elshakry, Marwa. “The gospel of science and American evangelism in late Ottoman Beirut.” Past and present 196, no. 1 (2007): 173-214, doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/pastj/gtm006
  71. Farha, Mark, and Salma Mousa. “Secular autocracy vs. sectarian democracy? Weighing reasons for christian support for regime transition in Syria and Egypt.” Mediterranean Politics 20, no. 2 (2015): 178-197, https://doi.org/10.1080/13629395.2015.1033903
  72. Farouk, Mahmoud, Amy Hawthorne, and Ahmed Rizk. Prayers Unanswered: Assessing the Impact of Egypt’s 2016 Church Construction Law. Project on Middle East Democracy, 2018, https://pomed.org/report-prayers-unanswered-assessing-the-impact-of-egypts-2016-church-construction-law/
  73. Farquhar, Michael. “Expanding the Wahhabi mission: Saudi Arabia, the Islamic University of Medina and the transnational religious economy.” PhD diss., The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), 2013, http://etheses.lse.ac.uk/id/eprint/3289
  74. Farquhar, Michael. Circuits of faith: Migration, education, and the Wahhabi mission. Stanford University Press, 2016, https://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=gxwmDQAAQBAJ
  75. Foda, Omar D. “Grand plans in glass bottles: the economic, social, and technological history of beer in Egypt 1880-1970.” PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, 2015, https://repository.upenn.edu/edissertations/1055
  76. Foda, Omar D. Egypt’s Beer: Stella, Identity, and the Modern State. University of Texas Press, 2019, https://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=gnqzDwAAQBAJ
  77. Fonder, Nathan Lambert. “Pleasure, Leisure, Or Vice? Public Morality in Imperial Cairo, 1882–1949.” PhD diss., Harvard University, 2013, http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:11151531
  78. Fortenberry, Diane. Souvenirs and New Ideas. Oxbow Books, 2013, https://books.google.ca/books?id=CKWmAwAAQBAJ
  79. Friesen, Isaac. “On Samir Murqus, the Narrative of Crisis and the Triumph of Tahrir.” In Arab Spring, pp. 157-171. Palgrave Macmillan, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-24758-4_9
  80. Furniss, Philip Jamie. “Metaphors of Waste: Several Ways of Seeing ‘Development’ and Cairo’s Garbage Collectors.” PhD diss., Oxford University, 2012.
  81. Furniss, Jamie, “Religion, humanitarianism and development: the secular materialist ‘mission’ of sœur Emmanuelle with Cairo’s garbage collectors,” A contrario, 2012/2 (n° 18), pp. 97-123, https://www.cairn.info/revue-a-contrario-2012-2-page-97.htm
  82. Furniss, J., and D. Meier. “Le laïc et le religieux dans l’action humanitaire, une introduction.” A contrario, 18, no. 2 (2012): 7-36.
  83. Gabra, Gawdat, and Hany Takla, eds. Christianity and Monasticism in Middle Egypt. British Academic Press, 2015.
  84. Gabry-Thienpont, Séverine. “‪Musiques et charismes chez les chrétiens en Égypte au début du XXIe siècle‪.” Archives de sciences sociales des religions 3 (2015): 187-207, doi: https://doi.org/10.4000/assr.27108 and http://www.jstor.org/stable/24740955
  85. Galal, Lise Paulsen. “Minoriteten og revolutionen: Koptere i Egypten efter det arabiske forår.” Babylon Nordisk tidsskrift for Midtøstenstudier 1-2 (2015), doi: https://doi.org/10.5617/ba.4186
  86. Gänger, Stefanie. “¿La mirada imperialista? Los alemanes y la arqueología peruana.” Histórica 30, no. 2 (2006), http://revistas.pucp.edu.pe/index.php/historica/article/view/357
  87. García, Juan Carlos Moreno, and Juan Carlos. “Un mito tenaz: el Egipto antiguo o el paraíso perdido en la obra de los egiptólogos de finales del siglo XIX y comienzos del siglo XX.” Descubriendo el Antiguo Oriente. Pioneros y arqueólogos de Mesopotamia y Egipto a finales del s. XIX y principios del s. XX (2015): 103-122.
  88. Georgy, Joshua Thomas. “Fragmented Geographies: The See of Alexandria, Its Following, and the Estrangements of Modernity.” PhD diss., Columbia University, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7916/D8MP52M9
  89. Gilman, Daniel J. Cairo Pop: Youth Music in Contemporary Egypt. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2014.
  90. Gold, Meira. “Ancient Egypt and the geological antiquity of man, 1847–1863.” History of Science (2019), https://doi.org/10.1177/0073275318795944
  91. Golding, David. “Superstitions of the Heathen: Foreign Missions and the Fashioning of American Exceptionalism, 1800-1861.” PhD diss., The Claremont Graduate University, 2016.
  92. Grehan, James. Twilight of the saints: everyday religion in Ottoman Syria and Palestine. Oxford University Press, 2016.
  93. Guirguis, Laure. Copts and the Security State: Violence, Coercion, and Sectarianism in Contemporary Egypt. Stanford University Press, 2016, https://books.google.ca/books?id=qx0mDQAAQBAJ
  94. Ha, Hyun Jeong. “Non-Muslim students and religious education in Egyptian classrooms.” In Education and the Arab Spring, pp. 115-127. Brill, 2016.
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